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Annotated Bibliography

Lester, Paul. “Gil Scott-Heron: The Revolution Lives On.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. 26 Aug. 2015. www.theguardian.com/music/2015/aug/26/gil-scott-heron-the-revolution-will-not-be-televised.

In his article titled “Gil Scott-Heron: The Revolution Lives On”, Paul Lester of The Guardian addresses the impact that Gil Scott-Heron had on the music industry, even claiming that his influence goes as far as to reach some of the world’s most prominent hip hop, r&b, and rap artists. In this piece, Paul Lester uses a multitude of claims by important figures in Gil Scott-Heron’s life and legacy, including his protégé Abdul Malik Al Nasir, his son Rumal Rackley, and daughter of Nelson Mandela the famous activist, Ndaba Mandela. This source is designed to show just how important Gil Scott-Heron’s influence was on such important people, and how his work and life impacted so many impactful figures of the musical world and literary world. This article is found under the “Culture” section of The Guardian, meaning that the intended audience for the piece is those who are interested in culture, especially black culture, and how it has developed over the years into what it is today, specifically in terms of fine arts. Those who want to learn more about black culture, black music, black activism, and black literature would find this piece particularly useful and informative because of its information of direct correlation between modern day black culture and its brief history of Gil Scott-Heron and his significance in black culture.


Silverman, Stephan M. “Gil Scott-Heron Dies.” PEOPLE.com, 28 May. 2011. www.people.com/celebrity/gil-scott-heron-dead-at-62/.

Stephen M. Silverman, from People Magazine/people.com, informs the public of the death of influential poet, musician, and activist, Gil Scott-Heron, in an article titled, “Gil Scott-Heron has died”. Silverman uses quotes from Gil Scott-Heron himself, famous r&b singer Usher, and evidence from CNN to describe the incident of Scott-Heron’s death, as well as significances from his life time. The author’s intent is to instill pathos and give the audience a sense of sympathy and awe of the news of Gil Scott-Heron’s death, and more importantly his achievements. Silverman’s audience is those interested in the music and literature world, along with those interested in the death of one of the music industry’s most important pioneers. This article connects some of the dots between music, rap culture, HIV, fame, and drug abuse, and researchers or music artists may find this piece interesting because it is a look at the result of drug abuse and fame abuse in the music world and culture of rap music which has a reputation for being generally aggressive and reckless.


Domanick, Andrea. “Why Eazy-E’s Death Still Can’t Make Hip-Hop Talk About AIDS.” Noisey, 2 Dec. 2015.

Andrea Domanick of Noisey, Vice News’ music branch, in her article “Why Eazy-E’s Death Still Can’t Make Hip-Hop Talk About AIDS”, tells the story of the life and Death of rapper Eazy-E, and continues to discuss what type of impact AIDS had on the music star, as well as what impact AIDS had on people from “the hood’ and people who listen to music similar to Eazy-E’s. Domanick uses direct quotes from PhD Dr. Lorece Edwards, CEO of DewMore Balitmore and outreach worker of Johns Hopkins, and rapper and performer Ice Cube, whom also worked along-side Eazy-E for years in their NWA music group, as credible sources for the discussion of AIDS and HIV in the music world and youth culture, as well as black culture. The author wants to use ethos to get her points across regarding the significance of AIDS in today’s society, as well as to raise awareness of a topic she feels is widely disregarded and neglected. Domanick’s audience is undoubtedly any fan of Eazy-E, “Straight Out of Compton”, NWA, rap music, black culture, music, sexual health, and AIDS researchers. Those who would find this most useful are those studying the epidemic of AIDS and its effect on our society, as well as those who are fans or rap music, and especially those trying to find the relationship between the two, especially considering so much of rap music today promotes having sex in unsafe and nonchalant ways.


Salazar, Cristian. “Gil Scott-Heron, Whose Music Reflected Black Anger, Dies at 62.” 29 May 2011.

Cristian Salazar gives a brief summary of the life and death of famous musician and activist Gil Scott-Heron. Salazar uses quotes from past interviews with Scott-Heron to demonstrate his point that Scott-Heron struggled with drugs and HIV throughout his later years. It seems as if Salazar’s purpose is to discredit the work and ideologies of Gil Scott-Heron, by calling Scott-Heron’s work a catalyst for the anger and hatred of black people, and by discussing Scott-Heron’s serious struggles with crack addiction and HIV. This passage was designed for those interested in the news regarding Gil Scott-Heron’s death, especially regarding how and why he died, as well as those interested in his ideologies and how these ideologies served as tools for African Americans after the Civil Rights movement. A researcher who wants to find the connection between rap music, drug glorification, and sex glorification would find this article particularly useful due to its content regarding an aspect of all three subjects.


King,  Jamilah. “Remembering Girl Scott-Heron: Activist and Musical Legewnd.” Colorlines, 18 Apr. 2015.

Jamilah King delivers concrete evidence of events and a brief summary of the life and times of Gil Scott-Heron, the famous musician and political activist. King offers evidence using quotes from those who looked up to Scott-Heron, such as Abiodun Oyewole, an accomplished poet. In her article, King aims to inform the public about the life and accomplishments of Gil Scott-Heron, as well as the impact he had on the music world. The audience for this piece are those interested in hip hop culture and its founders, most predominant, and most impactful figures, as well as those interested in political activism through music and poetry. Those who want to assess the growth and technique of political activism during an era when music culture began to shift would find this piece interesting and resourceful, especially considering Gil Scott-Heron helped shape hip hop music into what it became as we moved into the eighties, nineties, and early two-thousands.


Adams, Ashburn, Johnson, Reed. “Differential Gender Effects of Exposure to Rap Music on African American Adolescents’ Acceptance of Teen Dating Violence.” SpringerLink, Sex Roles, 1995.

Adams, Ashburn, Johnson, and Reed inform the public of the differences in the effects of rap music on males and females. This piece provides research, observations, and tested results to show credibility. The aim of this piece is to show that rap music and rap music videos have had a negative impact on both adolescent males and adolescent females, especially on the topics of sexual abuse and violence. The intended audience for this source are those who want to learn of the impact that rap music has on adolescence and on American culture, and those who want to know more about the affects rap music has on sexual behavior and sexual safety trends. Someone researching to find the root of unsafe sex and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as sexual assault and violence, would find this piece particularly helpful.


Richardson J.W,  Scott K.A. “Rap Music and Its Violent Progeny: America’s Culture of Violence in Context.” Journal of Negro Education. Vol. 71, No. 3, summer 2009.

Jeanita W. Richardson and Kim A. Scott argue that rap music has influenced America negatively by causing a chain reaction of violence in American culture, particularly in African American culture. Dozens of references are used in the development of this research, including music, articles, statistics from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and books regarding all things music, violence, and culture. The purpose of this piece is to discuss the impact rap music has had on the African American culture as well as American culture in general, and to find the correlation between violence and rap music. The intended audience for this piece is the people interested in how violence and rap music correlate, as well as those discussing the development of rap music, and how it has changed to be more violent and less meaningful over the past decades. Someone who has noticed the difference in rap music today and rap music from the early 2000’s, such as the far more violent attitude and nonchalance about gun violence and unsafe sex, would find this piece resourceful and significant to their research.